Decontamination Studies Relevant to the United States Coast Guard (USCG)

U.S Army Reserve Staff Sgt. William Haynes, survey team member with the 773rd Civil Support Team, 7th Mission Support Command, left, conducts site characterization with fellow team member, Sgt. Jonathan Medina on a vessel during a training exercise with the Netherlands CBRN Response unit in Gravendeel, Netherlands, July 8, 2020. The one-day CBRN situational training exercise focused on a CBRN incident on a maritime vessel at the Dutch Harbor in Gravendeel, Netherlands (Source: 
 U.S Army Reserve by Capt. Lorenzo Llorente, 773rd CST UPAR).
U.S Army Reserve Staff Sgt. William Haynes, survey team member with the 773rd Civil Support Team, 7th Mission Support Command, left, conducts site characterization with fellow team member, Sgt. Jonathan Medina on a vessel during a training exercise with the Netherlands CBRN Response unit in Gravendeel, Netherlands, July 8, 2020. The one-day CBRN situational training exercise focused on a CBRN incident on a maritime vessel at the Dutch Harbor in Gravendeel, Netherlands (Source: U.S Army Reserve by Capt. Lorenzo Llorente, 773rd CST UPAR).

Posted on October 23, 2020 | Completed on October 23, 2020

What studies (classified or unclassified) have been done on the effects of using standard DECON solutions (for CWA & BIO) on MH-60-type aircraft/small boat composite materials (skin, rotor, electronics, etc.) and what is the effectiveness of each solution/method (CWA/BIO) currently available for military use? Are there any health hazard studies on the DECON solutions being used on aircraft as they relate to dangers to DECON personnel?

1. Inquiry

HDIAC received the following technical inquiry (TI) from the USCG CWMD Program Manager, Office of Specialized Capabilities (CG-721), Coast Guard Headquarters:

Question: DECON study (Classified or UNCLASS) on MH-60 type aircraft or small boats on the effects of using standard DECON solutions (for CWA & BIO) on aircraft/small boat composite materials (skin, rotor, electronics, etc.) and the effectiveness of each solution/method (CWA/BIO) currently available for military use. Additionally, are there any health hazard studies on the DECON solutions being used on aircraft as they relate to dangers to DECON personnel (aside from the obvious CWA/TIC hazards) [1].

2. HDIAC Response

HDIAC conducted a literature search and review of the Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC) Research & Engineering (R&E) Gateway and also sought assistance from the HDIAC subject matter expert (SME) network in the CBRN Defense and WMD technical focus areas.

3. Literature Review

A search of DTIC’s online R&E Gateway was performed to determine what reports were in the repository. A keyword search on “decontamination of composite materials” returned nearly 13,000 results ranging from information at the molecular level to decontamination of jet aircraft. Given the multifaceted nature of these questions and the 4-hour time constraint of the free TI service, the most expedient methodology for presenting the results was to cull the list of relevant returns and present them in two tables. Table 1 contains a list of studies pertaining to the decontamination of specific equipment that may be relevant to the USCG. Table 2 contains a list of studies relevant to the decontamination of materials in general.

Table 1 – Studies Pertaining to the Decontamination of Specific Equipment

Title / Author(s) / Organization

Date Published/ Accession

No./Distribution Statement

Nuclear, Biological, Chemical (NBC) Contamination Survivability Analysis of the UH-60 Black Hawk Helicopter

Author(s): Nellis, Joseph C.

Org: ARMY RESEARCH LAB, ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND, MD

2005-07-01

SURVIAC-SV-21666

D – DoD and DoD Contractors Only

NBC Contamination Survivability (NBCCS) of the MH-6OK Black Hawk Helicopter

Author(s): Majeski, John D., Harrington, Peter B.

Org: ARMY RESEARCH LAB, ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND, MD

1997-04-01

ADB223347

B – US Government Access Only

Aircrew Respiratory Protection

Author(s): Mangelsdorf, David H., Adams, William J.

Org: NORTH AMERICAN ROCKWELL CORP., LOS ANGELES, CA, LOS ANGELES DIV

1967-11-01

CBRNIAC-CB-054984

C – US Government Agencies and their Contractors only

Test Report for the Large-frame Aircraft Decontamination Demonstration — Material Compatibility Test

Author(s): Haddock, Ralph, Schwartz, Beryl, Westwood, Scot

Org: WEST DESERT TEST CENTER, DUGWAY PROVING GROUND, UT

2003-08-01

CBRNIAC-CB-192895

B – US Government Access Only

Chemical, Biological, and Radiological (CBR) Contamination Survivability, Large Item Interiors

Author(s): Not available

Org: U.S. ARMY DUGWAY PROVING GROUND, UT

2016-08-03

AD1013716

A – Approved for Public Release

Chemical Agent Resistance of RAH-66 Comanche Materials

Author(s): Stickel, Gary A., Taylor, Kevin, Tandon, Reecha, Carroll, Warren B.

Org: BATTELLE, COLUMBUS DIV., OH

1998-01-28

CBRNIAC-CB-178003

F – Further Dissemination Only as Directed

Decontamination of Bioaerosols within Engineering Tolerances of Aircraft Materials

Author(s): Frazey, John S., Reynolds, Stephen

Org: COLORADO STATE UNIV FORT COLLINS

2012-09-04

ADA568160

A – Approved for Public Release

Decontamination of Aircraft Electronic Equipment

Author(s): Kaiser, Robert

Org: ENTROPIC SYSTEMS INC., WINCHESTER, MA

2000-11-01

CBRNIAC-CB-185177

B – US Government Access Only

Susceptibility of Polymeric Materials to Chemical Warfare Agents Phase 1 — Aircraft Materials

Author(s): Not available

Org: BATTELLE, COLUMBUS DIV., OH

1985-11-25

CBRNIAC-CB-154794

C – US Government Agencies and their Contractors only

Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical (NBC) Contamination Survivability Analysis of the Suite of Integrated Infrared Counter-Measures (SIIRCM) System

Author(s): Smith, Brian G., McCullen, Judith T.

Org: ARMY RESEARCH LAB, ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND, MD, SURVIVABILITY LETHALITY ANALYSIS DIRECTORATE

2002-04-01

ADB280101

C – US Government Agencies and their Contractors only

X – Export Controlled

Survivability of Air Operations: Chemical/Biological Warfare Operational

Countermeasures

Author(s): Kelly, Robert R.

Org: LOCKHEED AERONAUTICAL SYSTEMS CO., MARIETTA, GA

1987-11-01

CBRNIAC-CB-155674

E – DoD Only

Final Report NBC Contamination Survivability Low Rate Initial Production Phase of NAVSTAR Global Positioning System Five-Channel Receivers, 3A, and 3S

Author(s): Not available

Org: ARMY DUGWAY PROVING GROUND, UT, MATERIEL TEST DIRECTORATE

1990-06-01

CBRNIAC-CB-187546

B – US Government Access Only

Decontaminating Compounds and Aircraft Materials Compatibility Author(s): Dierks, Dayle, McShane, Henry, Tillman, Matthew, Jones, Daniel, Clark, Kenneth

Org: NAVAL AIR WARFARE CENTER AIRCRAFT DIV., PATUXENT RIVER, MD

2003-10-31

ADB293703

C – US Government Agencies and their Contractors only

26 – Not available in Microfiche X – Export Controlled

Sequencing of Multiple Chemical/Biological Aircraft Decontamination Agents

Author(s): Heater, Kenneth, Ricks, Janet, Theys, Angela, Scarantine, Sonya, Anderson, Michelle

Org: METSS CORP., WESTERVILLE, OH

2011-11-01

ADB375507

B – US Government Access Only X – Export Controlled

Naval Aviation Chemical and Biological Survivability

Author(s): O’Connell, Jeff, Adcock, Eric, Tourison, Ken, Laughlin, Leo, Haselwood, Jack

Org: BATTELLE, ARLINGTON, VA, CRYSTAL CITY OPERATIONS

1998-04-18

CBRNIAC-CB-104926

F – Further Dissemination Only as Directed

Susceptibility of Aircraft Materials to Chemical Warfare Agents Author(s): Bailey, P. E., Booton, J. D., Dick, R. J., Frank, G., Pfau, J. P.

Org: BATTELLE MEMORIAL INST., COLUMBUS, OH, BATTELLE PRESS

1988-07-01

CBRNIAC-CB-015462

C – US Government Agencies and their Contractors only

Method and Apparatus for Decontamination of Sensitive Equipment

Author(s): Kaiser, Robert

Org: ARGOS ASSOCIATES INC., WINCHESTER, MA

2007-01-16

CBRNIAC-CB-065985

E – DoD Only

Chemical, Biological, and Radiological Contamination Survivability Assessment (CBRCSA) of the C27J Joint Cargo Aircraft (JCA) Author(s): Davis, William G.

Org: WEST DESERT TEST CENTER, DUGWAY PROVING GROUND, UT

2010-03-01

ADB358849

B – US Government Access Only

Combined Report of the NBC Contamination Survivability of NAVSTAR Ground Positioning System One-channel Manpack/Vehicle Receiver, the Two-channel Aircraft Receiver, and the Five-channel Nondevelopmental Item Receiver

Author(s): Lowe, Randy, Hansen, Lee

Org: ANDRULIS RESEARCH CORP., SALT LAKE CITY, UT

90-07-01

CBRNIAC-CB-019254

B – US Government Access Only

Chemical and Biological Defense NATOPS Manual (Final)

Author(s): Horne, Phillip, Schmidt, Gregory

Org: BATTELLE MEMORIAL INST., JACKSONVILLE, NC

2004-10-01

CBRNIAC-CB-070330

F – Further Dissemination Only as Directed

Chemical Biological Defense Program Materials Compatibility Testing: Experimental Aircraft Decontaminant

Author(s): Heater, Kenneth, Bigg, Donald, Theys, Angela, Badowski, Dan, Banks, Anne, Sanders, Joe

Org: METSS CORP., WESTERVILLE, OH

2006-05-01

ADB331000

C – US Government Agencies and their Contractors only

X – Export Controlled

Testing of Agents and Decontaminants with Composite Materials and Electronic-Associated Materials

Author(s): Ponder, Morgan C., Spafford, Ralph B., Rice, Gregory C., Dagenhart, Gary S.

Org: CHEMICAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT AND ENGINEERING CENTER, ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND, MD

1987-09-01

ADB117048

C – US Government Agencies and their Contractors only

Treatment of Aircraft Panels with a Representative Soil Loading

Author(s): France, Brian, Ellis, Wallace

Org: TDA RESEARCH INC WHEAT RIDGE CO., WHEAT RIDGE, CO

2013-07-31

AD1055530

B – US Government Access Only

X – Export Controlled

Effects of Chemical Warfare Agents and Decontaminants on Selected Weapons Systems and Metal Alloys

Author(s): Kohlbeck, Joseph

Org: ARMY DUGWAY PROVING GROUND, UT, JOINT OPERATIONAL TEST AND INFORMATION DIRECTORATE

1992-02-01

CBRNIAC-CB-022308

B – US Government Access Only

Table 2 – Studies Relevant to the Decontamination of Materials in General

Title / Author(s) / Organization

Date Published/ Accession No./ Distribution Statement
Effects of Water and Water Impact on Composite Materials

Author(s): Montgomery, Jerry R.

Org: ARMY DUGWAY PROVING GROUND UT TECHNICAL ANALYSIS AND INFORMATION OFFICE

1988-06-01

ADB124033

B – US Government Access Only

Analysis of Government Data and Industry Literature for Pressurized Water Decontamination

Author(s): Tierney, James M.

Org: BATTELLE COLUMBUS DIV OH

1991-06-26

CBRNIAC-CB-017486

F – Further Dissemination Only as Directed

Assessment of Liquid and Physical Decontamination Methods for Environmental Surfaces Contaminated with Bacterial Spores: Evaluation of Spray Method Parameters and Impact of Surface Grime

Author(s): Calfee, M., Worth

Org: ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY RESEARCH TRIANGLE PARK NC, OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

2012-08-01

HDIAC-2036977

E – DoD Only

Evaluation of Expedient Decontamination Options with Activated Peroxide-Based Liquid Sporicides

Author(s): Calfee, M., Worth

Org: ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, RESEARCH TRIANGLE PARK, NC, OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

2013-03-01

HDIAC-2062640

A – Approved for Public Release

Evaluation of a Commercial Copolymer for Decontamination

Author(s): CUGINI, Anthony V., Baker, Howard G.

Org: PENTEK INC., CORAOPOLIS, PA 

1986-10-01

ADB107053

C – US Government Agencies and their Contractors only

Enzyme-Polymers for Nerve Agent Decontamination

Author(s): LeJeune, Keith E.

Org: AGENTASE, PITTSBURGH, PA

2002-01-01

CBRNIAC-CB-188015

B – US Government Access Only

Chemical Contamination Survivability: The Decontaminability of Materiel and Materials [Including Chemical Agent Resistant Coating (CARC) Author(s): Kaufman, Matthew

Org: ARMY RESEARCH LABORATORY ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND MD

1995-12-12

CBRNIAC-CB-015515

C – US Government Agencies and their Contractors only

Nanoscale Smart Coatings for Biological and Chemical Decontamination. Author(s): Dinu, C. Z., Zhu, G., Borkar, I., Pangule, R. C., Bale, S. S., Kane, R. S., Dordick, J. S.

Org: RENSSELAER POLYTECHNIC INST TROY NY

2009-11-16

CBRNIAC-CB-156296

A – Approved for Public Release

Optimization of Process Parameters for the Removal of Chemical Warfare Agents from Surfaces Using a Gaseous Decontamination System Author(s): Nickol, Robert G., Dworzanski, Jacek P.

Org: SCIENCE APPLICATIONS INTERNATIONAL CORP GUNPOWDER MD

2011-06-01

ADB372200

C – US Government Agencies and their Contractors only

Systems and Strippable Coatings for Decontaminating Structures that Include Porous Material.

Author(s): Fox, Robert, V., Avci, Recep, Groenewold, Gary, S.

Org: BATTELLE ENERGY ALLIANCE LLC IDAHO FALLS, ID

2011-12-06

HDIAC-2057777

A – Approved for Public Release

The Effects of Threat Biological Warfare Agents on US Air Force Materials Author(s): Provens, Timothy G., Greer, William T., Barnhart, Michael D. Org: METSS CORP WESTERVILLE, OH 2014-03-01

ADB408378

C – US Government Agencies and their Contractors only

X – Export Controlled

Compatibility of Plastics with Components of Decontaminating Solutions as Determined by Immersion Testing

Author(s): Quinn, Harry M., Davis, George T., Wilcher, Iris

Org: ARMY ARMAMENT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT COMMAND ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND MD CHEMICAL SYSTEMS LAB

1981-03-01

ADB057174

C – US Government Agencies and their Contractors only

23 – Document Partially Illegible X – Export Controlled

Evaluation of Carbon Fiber Decontamination Techniques

Author(s): Robitaille, Joseph L., Smith, Jill H.

Org: ARMY BALLISTIC RESEARCH LAB ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND MD

1980-04-01

ADB050331

C – US Government Agencies and their Contractors only

Chemical Warfare Agents and their Interactions with Solid Surfaces

Author(s): Gorzkowska-Sobas, Agnieszka, Anna

Org: NORWEGIAN DEFENCE RESEARCH ESTABLISHMENT KJELLER

2013-03-01

HDIAC-2055824

A – Approved for Public Release

Hazards and Disposal of Persistent Chemical Agents on Beaches

Author(s): Not available

Org: CHEMICAL CORPS TECHNICAL COMMAND ARMY CHEMICAL CENTER, MD

1944-02-26

CBRNIAC-CB-184365

E – DoD Only

Inactivation of Aerosolized Biological Agents using Filled Nanocomposite Materials

Author(s): Grinshpun, S. A., Schoenitz, M., Dreizin, E., Adhikari, A., Reponen, T., Yermakov, M.

Org: CINCINNATI UNIV, OH

2013-02-01

ADA574012

A – Approved for Public Release

The documents listed in Tables 1 and 2 vary in their distribution statements. Files of interest (based on their distribution statement) may be provided by HDIAC to the agency via the DoD SAFE file transfer system following confirmation of a valid .mil or .gov email address.

4. HDIAC SME Network Assistance

The HDIAC SME network is one of the Center’s most valuable resources, as it provides a body of knowledge and depth of experience that is far greater than any single person or entity. From time to time, the HDIAC SME network is sought out to assist in answering a TI. This inquiry, requesting assistance in determining the most up-to-date data for chemical compounds, is the type of inquiry that benefits from reaching out to the SME network for their thoughts on the most current information available. The responses from the SME network were reviewed for their applicability and are provided as follows:

  • Mr. Kevin Morrissey (Chief, Decontamination Sciences Branch, U.S. Army Combat Capabilities Development Command (CCDC) Chemical Biological Center (CBC)) brought up several possibilities that may be of interest [2]:
    • The Joint Biological Agent Decontamination System (JBADS) system which uses utilized hot/moist air to decontaminate bio-agents and has been demonstrated to work on aircraft.
    • Dahlgren Decon™, which is a three-component decontamination solution to decontaminate chemical warfare agents, toxic materials, and other emerging threats. Mr. Morrissey let us know that a report is in the publication process that evaluates the efficacy of Dahlgren Decon when used to decontaminate select exterior naval surfaces (naval topcoat, anti-skid, etc.). He anticipates this report will be published by the end of November.
    • Seawater – while not a decontamination solution, the CCDC CBC has conducted multiple studies on the effectiveness of spraying seawater on exterior naval surfaces as a means to mitigate CWA hazards. In both cases, we have not evaluated the impact on rotors or electronics when using these hazard mitigation approaches, but he is willing to provide the studies if you are interested.
  • The Joint Program Executive Office for Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Defense (JPEO-CBRND) exists to manage our nation’s investments in chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) defense equipment. Its website hosts a resource center (https://www.jpeocbrnd.osd.mil/resource-center) that includes the CBRN Resource Library and the Joint Acquisition Chemical Biological Radiological Nuclear (CBRN) Knowledge System (JACKS), which is the web-based Department of Defense (DoD) knowledge management system for information related to the acquisition and support of CBRN defense products.

Acknowledgments

HDIAC would like to acknowledge the following member of the HDIAC SME network for his contributions in the preparation of this report:

  • Mr. Kevin Morrissey (Chief, Decontamination Sciences Branch, U.S. Army Combat Capabilities Development Command [CCDC] Chemical Biological Center [CBC])

References

[1] T. Murphy. Decontamination Studies, email correspondence, October 19, 2020.
[2] K. Morrissey. Technical Inquiry from the U.S. Coast Guard Countering Weapons of Mass Destruction Office, email correspondence, October 21, 2020.

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